Mr. Nijaguna Mathad

Consultant Neurosurgeon




 Pituitary gland is situated at the base of the brain within pituitary fossa. Pituitary fossa is located at the roof of the sphenoid sinus, which is the largest air sinus at the back of the nose. Pituitary gland is of the size of a small broad bean, measuring 1.5cm X 1.0 cm. Its approximate weight is less than 0.75gm.


Pituitary gland is called as the “master gland” of the body, as it regulates all other hormone producing (endocrine) glands. Pituitary has two lobes, the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis). Posterior pituitary lobe is connected to hypothalamus by pituitary stalk. Hypothalamus decides which regulatory hormones the pituitary gland should release.


Anterior pituitary releases the following hormones in response to hormonal signal from the hypothalamus-

GH (Growth Hormone) – which regulates the muscle and bone

TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)-stimulates  thyroid gland to release thyroxine, which regulates metabolism

FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) & LH (Luteinizing Hormone) -  in women it stimulates ovaries to produce estrogen and in men it stimulates sperm production

Prolactin – stimulates breast tissue

ACTH (AdrenoCorticoTropic Hormone)- stimulates adrenal to produce steroids


Posterior pituitary releases the following hormones in response to neural signal from the hypothalamus-

ADH (AntiDiuretic Hormone)- stimulates kidneys to conserve water

Oxytocin- stimulates uterine contractions in labour and milk ejection in mother


See “Pituitary Gland” Leaflet by Pituitary Foundation





Anatomy of Pituitary Gland- Slide show

Pituitary Foundation Booklet on The Pitutiary Gland

NHS Secretary: 

Satnam K Taak

Phone: 02381206694

Wessex Neurological Centre

Southampton General Hospital

Southampton SO16 6YD


Private Secretary:

Charlotte Feist

Phone: 023 8076 4357

Fax: 023 8076 4358

Spire Southampton Hospital

Chalybeate Close

Southampton SO16 6UY

charlottefeist@nhs.net Please note that Charlotte will not deal with any NHS matters